Generation of Gene Modified Mice
Generation of new GM mouse lines is done either by direct delivery of DNA into the nucleus of fertilized oocytes, using either virus vectors, or in most cases, DNA injections, optionally via embryonic stem (ES) cells.
Further steps include transfer of the embryos into a foster mother and analysis of pups born. All steps require specific equipment and laboratories, and the well-trained personnel is of essential importance.
Since the methods require handling of living animals, laws on experimental animals as well as gene modified organisms regulate the set-up of facilities and education of personnel.